Monday, July 9, 2012

Adjective Clause

Materi tentang adjective clause atau relative clause adalah salah satu materi yang harus dikuasai dengan baik oleh siswa SMA, SMK, hingga mahasiswa perguruan tinggi. Selain dibutuhkan dalam penyusunan dan penulisan kalimat berbahasa Inggris yang efisien, adjective clause atau relative clause juga merupakan salah satu testing point yang selalu diujikan dalam test TOEFL, TOEIC, dan Ujian Akhir Nasional (UAN). Karena itu, setelah mengenal sekilas tentang adjective clause atau relative clause, sekarang kita akan mempelajarinya secara lebih terperinci lagi.

1. Adjective Clause Using Subject Pronouns: Who, Which, That

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Subject Pronouns: "Who", "Which", "That"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. He runs a successful business.I will introduce you to a friend who runs a successful business.
I will introduce you to a friend that runs a successful business.
The book is about religion. It has raised controversy.The book which has raised controversy is about religion.
The book that has raised controversy is about religion.
Notes:
  • "Who", "which", atau "that" adalah subyek dalam adjective clause.
  • "Who" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa orang.
  • "Which" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa benda.
  • "That" digunakan untuk mengganti subyek berupa orang maupun benda, dan lebih umum dipakai daripada "which". Akan tetapi, "that" hanya bisa digunakan pada defining relative clause saja. (Baca Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause).

2. Adjective Clause Using Object Pronouns: Who(m), Which, That
Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Object Pronouns: "Who(m)", "Which", "That"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. You have never met him before.I will introduce you to a friend (who(m)) you have never met before.
I will introduce you to a friend (that) you have never met before.
The book is about religion. I bought it in Gramedia bookstore last week.The book (which) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
The book (that) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
The song was very popular in 1990's. I am listening to it.The song to which I am listening was very popular in 1990's.
The song (which) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.
The song (that) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.
Notes:
  • "Whom" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa orang, umumnya digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris formal. Untuk bahasa Inggris informal dan percakapan, "who" lebih sering dipakai menggantikan "whom".
  • "Which" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa benda.
  • "That" digunakan untuk mengganti obyek berupa orang maupun benda, dan lebih umum dipakai daripada "which". Akan tetapi, "that" hanya bisa digunakan pada defining relative clause saja. (Baca Menggabungkan Kalimat Menggunakan Adjective Clause (Relative Clause).
  • Pada bahasa Inggris percakapan (lisan), "who", "which", atau "that" seringkali dihilangkan.

3. Adjective Clause Using Whose

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "Whose"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. His interest is learning English.I will introduce you to a friend whose interest is learning English.
The old lady has a painting. Its value is inestimable.The old lady has a painting whose value is inestimable.
Notes:
  • Dalam adjective clause atau relative clause, "whose" digunakan untuk menunjukkan milik, menggantikan "his", "her", "its", atau "their".
  • Sebagaimana "his", "her", "its", dan "their", "Whose" selalu diikuti kata benda.
  • "Whose" tidak bisa dihilangkan. 
4. Adjective Clause Using Where

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "Where"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will take you to the restaurant. I usually have lunch there (at the restaurant).I will take you to the restaurant where I usually have lunch.
I will take you to the restaurant at which I usually have lunch.
I will take you to the restaurant (which) I usually have lunch at.
The old lady has sold the house. She has lived there (in the house) for more than twenty years.The old lady has sold the house where she has lived for more than twenty years.
The old lady has sold the house in which she has lived for more than twenty years.
The old lady has sold the house (which) she has lived in for more than twenty years.
Notes:
  • "Where" dalam adjective clause atau relative clause digunakan untuk menjelaskan tempat.
  • Jika "where" digunakan, preposition pada keterangan tempat (seperti in, from, to, at, on, under, above) tidak diperlukan dalam adjective clause. Sebaliknya, jika "where" tidak digunakan, preposition harus ada. (lihat contoh ke-2 dan ke-3 dalam tabel di atas)

5. Adjective Clause Using When

Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with "When"
Without adjective clause / relative clause Using adjective clause / relative clause
We will never forget the day. My wife gave birth to my first son then (on that day).We will never forget the day when my wife gave birth to my first son.
We will never forget the day on which my wife gave birth to my first son.
We will never forget the day (that) my wife gave birth to my first son.
August is the month. The weather gets very windy then (in August).August is the month when the weather gets very windy.
August is the month in which the weather gets very windy.
August is the month (that) the weather gets very windy.
Notes:
  • "When" dalam adjective clause atau relative clause digunakan untuk menjelaskan waktu.
  • Jika "when" digunakan, preposition pada keterangan waktu (seperti in, on, at) tidak diperlukan dalam adjective clause. Sebaliknya, jika "where" tidak digunakan, preposition ada. (lihat contoh ke-2 dan ke-3 dalam tabel di atas)

BERKOMENTARLAH YANG SANTUN, JANGAN SPAM, AYO BERKOMENTARLAH DISINI. . .

Ditulis Oleh : Ngurah Dhika ~ Mari Berbagi dan Belajar Bersama

Artikel Adjective Clause ini diposting oleh Ngurah Dhika pada hari Monday, July 9, 2012. Terimakasih atas kunjungan Anda serta kesediaan Anda membaca artikel ini. Kritik dan saran dapat anda sampaikan melalui kotak komentar.

5 komentar:

tp diajarin d skolah malah gk ngerti ini. T.T mana remidi trus . komn back yaw

kita memang perlu belajar berulang-ulang gan, dan pasti kita menjadi bisa karena sudah terbiasa,

hm,, keren artikelnya sob..
dan templatenya keren juga..

#Salam sahabat dari saya

salam sahabat, terimakasih komentar dan kunjungan yg ke sekian kalinya di blog saya ini sob,

# happy bloging gan

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